ECHO Team

Staff

Dr. Shannon Scott, Principal Investigator

Dr. Shannon Scott

I am a Professor in the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alberta. I currently hold a Tier 2 Canada Research Chair for knowledge translation in child health.

My research program, translating Evidence in Child Health to enhance Outcomes (or ECHO), aims to improve the health outcomes of children in Alberta and Canada through application of the best research evidence, as well as exploring factors that shape research implementation. My research is in the field of knowledge translation (KT) — a field focused on decreasing the gap between what the best available evidence advises that clinicians do and what clinicians actually do in clinical practice.

I completed both a Bachelor of Nursing degree with distinction (1994), and a Master of Nursing degree at the University of Manitoba (1998). I completed a PhD (2006) in Nursing and a Post-Doctoral Fellowship (2008) at Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence (ARCHE) in the Department of Pediatrics in the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry at the University of Alberta, both funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research (AHFMR). I am the author of over 150 peer-reviewed papers and have given more than 300 presentations at international, national, and local meetings.

 

Little known fact: I almost did not go into nursing at all! But my desire to help sick children brought me to this profession and I am very passionate about nursing and nursing research.

 

Hannah Brooks, Research Manager

I am a public health practitioner working with ECHO as Research Manager. In this role I engage in research, financial management, website and social media management, and work with a variety of incredible stakeholders and research collaborators. I bring with me a background in childhood infectious diseases (MSc in Global Health) and basic sciences (BSc in Biochemistry, Microbiology & Immunology).

My research interests are centered around providing children and their families with relatable and easily understandable information to support their health decisions and help children thrive. Working with the team at ECHO Research and our collaborators, I feel very privileged to work with researchers, clinical experts, and parents to develop accessible resources that can help parents make informed decisions about their child’s health care needs.

 

Little known fact: I once had two turtles named Fluffy and Norbert.

 

Kathy Reid, Project Coordinator

I am a registered nurse, with 37 years of experience in pediatrics, including 12 years as an NP in chronic pain. I received my BScN from Queen’s University in 1983, and my MN from University of Alberta in 2008. I worked with ECHO to develop the e-book “Learning to live with chronic pain: one family’s story” and am very excited to now be on the team as project coordinator developing KT tools for families.

 

Little known fact: I am an avid knitter! 

 

Una Mehrotra, Research Assistant

I graduated with a B.Sc in Psychology from the University of Alberta in Spring 2021 and I joined the ECHO program as a Research Assistant in the summer of 2021. I hope to translate the knowledge gained from this position into a career rooted in supporting the needs of younger individuals and their families by providing easily accessible, evidence-based care and offering personalized treatments that include the voices of patients in their design. I am happy to be working with such a warm and welcoming team of professionals who all share a passion for improving the lives of children with acute health conditions and their support systems.

 

Little known fact: I speak fluent Japanese and have lived in Tokyo twice.

 

Trainees

Maya Abdou, BScN Honours Student

I am currently a second-year nursing student at the University of Alberta with a passion for women and children’s health. I will be working with ECHO for the first time this year as a research trainee as part of my Summer Studentship. I will be starting the Honours program at the University of Alberta in my third year and look forward to learning more about research. I am excited to work with ECHO this summer and grow from this experience.

 

Awards:

  • Faculty of Nursing Undergraduate Summer Studentship Award (2022)
  • Jason Lang Scholarship (2021)
  • Alice Thomas Award in Nursing (2021)
  • Rutherford Scholarship (2020) 

 

Little known fact: I love reading! A perfect day to me consists of a good book, cup of coffee, and my two dogs. 

 

Claire Brideson, RN, BScN, NP Graduate Student

 

I graduated from the University of Calgary in 2015 with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing. I been a RN exclusively in the NICU since graduating. I started the Neonatal Nurse Practitioner program at the University of Alberta in Fall 2021 with Dr. Scott as my supervisor. My Master’s project is an environmental scan looking at the availability of clinical tools supporting non-nutritive sucking in the NICU.

 

 

Little known fact: I have a Silver Lab named Hank and I love to travel. 

 

James Benoit, Post-Doctoral Fellow

I am fortunate to work with a great group of researchers and Alberta parents, co-developing a smartphone app for children’s health. Our app allows parents to easily find and access the award-winning resources ECHO develops in partnership with the Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, then take action for their child’s health. We wrapped up our first round of app development in the winter of 2021 and are working hard to prepare it for public release. My research background is in neuroscience (UBC, 2009), ethics (UBC, 2011), and computational psychiatry (UofA, 2019), as well as postdoctoral work in pediatric neurology (UofA, 2019), and digital medications (Harvard, 2020). I focus on using new technologies like machine learning towards improving patient outcomes.

 

Awards:

  • Women and Children’s Health Research Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship (2021)
  • University of Alberta Nursing Innovator (2021)
  • Andrew Stewart Memorial Graduate Prize (2017)
  • Queen Elizabeth II Graduate Scholarship (2015)
  • Alberta Innovates Graduate Studentship (2015)
  • MITACS Accelerate (2014)
  • NSERC Postgraduate Scholarship (2014)

 

Little known fact: I used to be a chef, and can make a mean pizza.

 

Elizabeth Cernigoy, RN, BScN, MN, PhD Student

I am a Registered Nurse who graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of Ottawa and a Master’s of Science in Nursing from Trinity Western University. My career journey has been primarily focused in Women’s and Children’s Health first at the Ottawa Hospital in Women’s Oncology then at BC Children’s Hospital and Alberta Children’s Hospital in Pediatric Oncology/Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant. Working with children and families is my true calling. I love bringing a smile to kids’ faces and helping them and their parents through health challenges and hospitalizations. Most recently I maintain my clinical practice working at Chinook Regional Hospital on the Pediatrics Unit. Currently, I am a nurse educator in the University of Lethbridge’s Nursing Education in Southern Alberta program and work from the Lethbridge College campus. The opportunity to work with undergraduate nursing students and inspire a passion for family nursing is a true privilege. I serve as the program’s Chair of the 1st and 2nd year of the Bachelor of Nursing Programs and work with inspiring future nurse leaders every day. I am a PhD student at the University of Alberta and a trainee with ECHO. I am excited to be working with such a dynamic team focused on Child Health. The focus of my dissertation work is exploring cultural adaptations of knowledge translation tools to address parent learning needs and improve child health outcomes. This blends my passion of education with child health and is an emerging need in the knowledge translation field.

Awards:

  • UAH Class of September 1959 Teaching and Learning Graduate Award (2022)
  • Alberta Innovates ECHO Trainee Conference Travel Award (2022)
  • University of Alberta Nursing Research to Practice Award (2022)
  • University of Alberta Faculty of Nursing Supplemental Funding in Recognition of ARNET Scholarship (2022)
  • Alberta Registered Nurses Education Trust Chris Lambert Memorial Scholarship (2022)
  • Dr Shirley Stinson Scholarship in Nursing History (2016)

 

Little known fact: I love taking my young children, dog, and husband on camping adventures and to parks around our neighbourhood. 

 

Chentel Cunningham, RN, BScN, MN, NP, PhD Student

I am a pediatric nurse practitioner who graduated with my Masters of Nursing from the University of Alberta in 2011. My Master’s project involved the quantitative analysis identifying factors that shaped a pediatric gastroenteritis pathway. Since graduating, my clinical area of expertise involves pediatric heart failure and I have been involved in co-developing the first heart failure service and home inotrope program at the Stollery Children’s Hospital. My hopes in my doctoral studies are to advance nursing knowledge, mostly concentrating on the area of qualitative pediatric heart failure knowledge and pediatric advanced nursing practice.

Awards:

  • Killiam Memorial Scholarship *honorary (2022)
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Fellowship (2022)
  • University of Alberta Graduate Teaching Studentship Award (2022)
  • Jannetta MacPhail Award (2021)
  • Dorothy Kergin Award (2021)
  • Academic Graduate Excellence Scholarship (2020)
  • Nursing Research Endowment Award (2020)
  • Dr Shirley Stinson Scholarship in Nursing History (2020)
  • Alberta Graduate Excellence Scholarship (2020)
  • WCHRI Graduate Studentship (2019)
  • Alice Thomas Award in Nursing (2019)
  • Ludmyla Zujewsky Memorial Scholarship (2019)
  • Gary McPherson Scholarship (2019)
  • Alberta Registered Nurses Educational Trust Academic Scholarship (2019)

 

Little known fact: I road bike and completed a 100 km race!

 

Tamara Dorfman, RN, BSc, BScN, NP, MN, PhD Student

I am a Pediatric Nurse Practitioner who graduated from my Master of Nursing program in November 2012. My Master‘s thesis was a systemic review on instruments for scoring pain, non-pain related distress, analgesia, and sedation in pediatric mechanically ventilated patients and their efficacy and effectiveness in practice. Currently, I work as a Nurse Practitioner in Pediatric Cardiology at the Stollery Children’s Hospital. In September 2021, I started my PhD in Nursing with Dr. Scott as my supervisor. The focus of my graduate studies is on improving the psychosocial consequences experienced of children and adolescents living with congenital heart disease and their caregivers. I am grateful to be a member of the ECHO team and look forward to being involved in research that will improve the health outcomes of children and their families.

 

Awards:

  • Shirley Stinson Scholarship in Nursing History (2022)
  • WCHRI Graduate Studentship (2022)
  • Karen Polowick Scholarship for Nursing Leadership (ARNET) (2022)
  • University of Alberta Graduate Recruitment Scholarship (2021)
  • Isobel Secord Graduate Scholarship (2021)
  • South Edmonton Lioness Club Scholarship in Nursing (2021)

 

Little known fact: I play women’s hockey and am a huge Edmonton Oilers fan!

 

Jadynn Gansauge, BScN Honours Student

I am currently enrolled in my second year of nursing with Honours here in the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alberta. I am hoping to join ECHO as a summer student researcher under the supervision of Dr. Scott. This opportunity was very exciting to me as ECHO’s focus on pediatric knowledge translation aligns very closely with what I hope to study as part of my own Honours research project.

 

Awards:

  • Faculty of Nursing Undergraduate Student Summer Research Award (2022)

 

Little known fact: I can speak English and French!

 

Lisa Knisley, BN, MA, PhD Student

In September 2018, I started the PhD in Nursing program with Dr. Scott as my supervisor. I work at the Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba as the Executive Director for a national knowledge mobilization network called, Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK). TREKK aims to improve pediatric emergency care by accelerating the speed at which the latest evidence is put into practice within general emergency departments – rural, urban and remote. I completed a Bachelor of Nursing degree at the University of Manitoba and a Master’s in Arts in Journalism from the University of Westminster. My research interests include health communication and improving health literacy within child health.

Awards:

  • Women and Children’s Health Research Institute (WCHRI) Graduate Studentship (2021)
  • Nursing Research Endowment Award (2021)
  • Women and Children’s Health Research Institute (WCHRI) Graduate Studentship (2019)
  • Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba Travel Grant Award (2019)
  • SPOR Evidence Alliance Seed Grant (2019)
  • Alice Thomas Award in Nursing (2019)
  • Isobel Secord Award (2018)
  • University of Alberta Doctoral Recruitment Scholarship (2018)

 

Little known fact: A love of travel led me to work as a nurse in Canada, USA and the UK.

 

Samantha Louie-Poon, RN, BScN, PhD Student, Research Coordinator

I am a Registered Nurse who graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing with Distinction from the University of Alberta in 2016. My clinical background is in the area of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology and Pediatric Medicine at the Stollery Children’s Hospital. I first began with ECHO as a Research Assistant in the Fall of 2017. Currently, I am a Graduate Research Assistant pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy degree under Dr. Shannon Scott. The focus of my graduate studies aims to integrate anti-racism as a key commitment in the development of child mental health resources for Asian parents. Having a passion for pediatric nursing research, I am excited to expand my involvement with ECHO!

 

Awards:

  • Alberta Graduate Excellence Scholarship (2022)
  • Helen E Penhale Graduate Research Travel Award (2022)
  • Dr. Shirley Stinson Scholarship in Nursing History (2022)
  • Intersections of Gender Thesis Grant (2021)
  • Chinese Graduate Association of Alberta Graduate Scholarship (2021)
  • Women and Children’s Health Research Institute (WCHRI) Graduate Studentship
    (2021)
  • Nursing Research Endowment Award (2021)
  • Myer Horowitz Graduate Students’ Association Graduate Scholarship (2021)
  • Isobel Secord Graduate Scholarship (2020)
  • Maternal Newborn Child & Youth (MNCY) Strategic Clinical Network (SCN)
    Graduate Studentship (2020)
  • Calgary Health Trust – Florence and Lloyd Cooper Scholarship for Nursing
    Leadership and Research Award (2020)
  • ARNET Academic Scholarship (2020)
  • Dr Shirley Stinson Scholarship in Nursing History (2020)

 

Little known fact: In 2017 I trekked 11 days around the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal, crossing Thorong La Pass (5,416m), known as the highest mountain pass in the world!

 

Lily Lu, RN, BScN, NP Graduate Student

I am a Registered Nurse who graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of Alberta in 2018. My clinical background is in the area of Pediatric trauma and surgery at the Stollery Children’s Hospital. I am also working as a clinical research nurse with the PEAK research team at the Stollery Emergency Department. Currently, I am a graduate student pursuing my nurse practitioner degree. The focus of my graduate studies will focus on identifying the importance of the customization timing for pediatrics patients on the non-invasive ventilation therapy.

 

Awards:

  • Canadian Nurses Foundation Award  (2022)
  • Nursing Research Endowment Award (2022)
  • GSA Graduate Student Teaching Assistant Award (2021)
  • UNA Research Grant (2021)

 

Little known fact: I try my best to bring my corgi when travelling in Canada. She loves it!

 

Danielle Lysak, RN, BScN, MN Student

I am a Registered Nurse who graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing Honours in 2021. I currently work as an RN in Pediatric Cardiac and GI Sciences at the Stollery Children’s Hospital in addition to working in Stollery’s outpatient cardiac clinic. I began my Master’s in nursing at the UofA in September of 2021 to pursue research in pediatrics that is relevant to the families I work with daily at the hospital. ECHO has given me the opportunity to participate in pediatric research in my Master’s thesis and I am excited to continue work in this incredible research environment!

 

Awards:

  • Nursing Research Endowment Award (2022)
  • Health Sciences Student Association Champion of Interdisciplinary Practice (2021)

 

Little known fact: I have lived in 3 provinces, 2 countries, and 2 continents. I spend my free time skiing, playing hockey, and in the Summer I love spending time at Floatingstone Lake!

 

Annie Mabbott, RN, BScN, MSc, PhD Student

 

I am a Registered Nurse with a Master of Science in Paediatrics and Child Health from University College London (2017) and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the University of Alberta (2014). My clinical background is in the NICU at South Health Campus in Calgary, CICU at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, UK and as a nurse at a children’s sports camp in Maine, USA. My research experience started with an undergraduate summer studentship with ECHO; I have worked in  various research roles at the Alberta Children’s Hospital, UCL Great Ormond Street Hospital Institute for Child Health, and for the National Health Service (NHS) in London. I am currently a Graduate Research Assistant pursuing a PhD in Nursing. I’m so excited to re-join the ECHO team and continue my work in improving child health through nursing  research!

 

Awards:

  • Women and Children’s Health Research Institute (WCHRI) Graduate Studentship
    (2022)
  • University of Alberta Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research Recruitment
    Scholarship (2022)
  • Roberta Jean and Don Fox Scholarship, University of Alberta (2013)
  • Margaret Faulkner Memorial Scholarship, University of Alberta (2013)
  • Faculty of Nursing Undergraduate Student Summer Research Award, University of Alberta (2013)

Little known fact: We have a baby boy, two cats and a Bernese mountain dog (our friends lovingly refer to our house as “the zoo”!)

Neelam Saleem Punjani, RN, BScN, MScN, PhD, Post-Doctoral Fellow

I am a working as a post-doctorate fellow with ECHO team in collaboration with AHS department Healthy Children and Families. I also work as Assistant Lecturer at the Faculty of Nursing. I completed my BScN and MScN from Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery from Karachi, Pakistan. Shortly after, I began working actively within the community advocating for young people’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. My career journey has been primarily focused on advocating for Women’s and Children’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. My PhD research was inspired by seeing countless young girls in her home country unable to express themselves related to their sexuality. My PhD research focused on the experiences of adolescent girls’ experiences of developing sexuality and their psychological well-being using intersectionality and a critical feminist approach. My post doc research focuses on Empowering Children and Adolescents through Sexuality Education by developing digital knowledge translation tools. In coming years, I would like my research to be used in healthcare settings and communities.

 

Awards:

  • J Gordin Kaplan Graduate Student Award, 2022
  • Intersections of Gender Enrichment Grant, 2022
  • WCHRI Graduate Studentship Grant award, 2019-2021
  • ARNET Scholar – Karen Polowick Scholarship for Nursing Leadership, 2021
  • Educational award in recognition of the exceptional professional and academic achievement, 2021
  • CIHR-IGH Best Poster Award OSSD Meeting, 2021
  • Benita (Mayers) and Orville Fifield Scholarship in Sexual Health, 2020-2021
  • Peggy and Ivor Field Scholarship for Maternity Nursing, Midwifery, Women’s Health
  • Nursing Research Endowment Award, 2020-2021
  • Nila Cushman Memorial Graduate Scholarship, 2020-2021
  • Mu Sigma Chapter Research Award, 2020
  • Delta Kappa Gamma World Fellowship, 2020-2021
  • University of Alberta Golden Key Chapter Award, 2020
  • Aga Khan Foundation International Scholarship Award, 2019-2020
  • Delta Kappa Gamma World Fellowship, 2019-2020
  • Andrew Stewart Memorial Graduate Prize, 2019-2020
  • Helen E Penhale Graduate Research Travel Award, 2019-2020
  • Education Abroad Individual Award, 2019-2020
  • Mu Sigma Chapter Education Scholarship, 2019
  • Nursing Graduate Student’s Association Prize for Excellence
  • Dr. Doris Froebe Leadership Education Grant, 2019
  • Faculty Of Nursing Endowment PhD Fund Award, 2019
  • Libby Ritter Travel Award, 2018
  • Packard Foundation Scholarship to attend International Conference on Family Planning, (2018)
  • University of Alberta Recruitment Scholarship, 2017-2018
  • 100 Outstanding Nurses and Midwives (2020) by Women in Global Health in partnership with WHO, UNFPA
  • Izaak Walton Killam Memorial Scholarship, 2019-2021
  • Isobel Secord Scholarship, 2017-2018
  •  

 

Little known fact: I love cooking and baking – my specialty is South Asian cuisine

 

Cindy Sun, BScN Honours Student

I began working with ECHO as a summer research student assisting with a literature review regarding information needs of Indigenous families. Currently, I am a BScN honours student and my research interests include women and children’s health, mental health, and knowledge translation strategies. I am excited to be part of ECHO and I hope to pursue research in the future.


Awards:

  • Faculty of Nursing Undergraduate Summer Studentship Award (2022)
  • Faculty of Nursing Undergraduate Summer Studentship Award (2021)
  • Muriel Hole Award in Nursing (2021)
  • University of Alberta Undergraduate Leadership Award (2021)
  • The Right Honourable Don Mazankowski Scholarship in Nursing (2021)

 

Little known fact: I love to crochet, draw, and collect succulents! 

 

Ziad Zahoui, BScN Honours Student

 

I am currently a second-year nursing student enrolled in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing Honors program at the University of Alberta.  I will be a summer trainee with ECHO for my Studentship this May.  I have previous experience working as a research assistant, and I have assisted in various scooping reviews and publications on immigrant health.  I have always had a passion for pediatrics and have volunteered with various community organizations and mentorship programs. Under the expertise of Dr. Shannon Scott & the ECHO team, I am excited to start my nursing journey in pediatrics. 

 

Awards:

  • Faculty of Nursing Undergraduate Student Summer Research Award (2022)
  • The Canadian Federation of Independent Grocers Scholarship (2021)
  • University Hospital Foundation Ruth A Van Dusen Dean’s Entrance Citation in Nursing Scholarship (2020-2024)
  • Mohamed Foundation Scholarship for Outstanding Achievement Scholarship (2020)
  • John Bethel and Bill Cunningham Community Leadership Scholarship (2020)
  • Opportunity Through Education Sandra B. Woitas Scholarship (2020)

 

Little known fact: My favorite summer activity making Churros with my mom!

 

Former team members

We would like to acknowledge and thank our former ECHO staff and trainees for their engagement and contribution to our past and current research. Although these former ECHO members no longer actively work with us, they contributed to our research and the development of our knowledge translation tools.

Priscilla Appiah, BScN, MN

Aimee Gonzalez de Armas, BScN(Hons), MScN

Byunghoon (Tony) Ahn, BEd, MEd

Lauren Albrecht, BEd, MEd

Sarah Amsbaugh, RN, MN

Mandy Archibald, RN, BScN, PhD

Danielle Arseneau, BScN

Taylor Bailey, RN, MN

Arjun Bains, BScN(Hons) 

Katherine Bannar-Martin, BSc, MSc, PhD

Kelli Buckreus, BA, MA(Ed), MLIS Student

Alyson Campbell, RN, BScN, PhD

Rebecca Campbell, BScN 

Michelle Chan, PhD

Mikelle Djkowich, RN, BScN, MN

Lauren Dobson, BScN(Hons)

Joud Nour Eddin, BSc, MPH

Gwen Erdmann, RN, MN

Rachel Flynn, RN, BScN, PhD

Jane Fryer, RN, MN

Janice Gillis, RN, MN student

Kimberly Hodge, RN, BScN, MN, NP

Leigh Irvine, RN, MN

Rachel Joffe, BScN 

Krystal Johnson, RN, MN

Mary Klute, BSc, MSc, BScN (after-degree)

Shauna Langenberger, RN, MN

Anne Le, BSc, MSc

Dominique Lefebvre, BScN

Leeann Lukenchuk, RN, MN

Anna Mann, MEd

Jolene Medynski, RN, MN

Salima Meherali, RN, BScN, PhD

Ella Milne, BScN(Hons)

Deanna Joyce Neri, MA

Allison Norris, BA, BScN

Lilian Ohene, PDF, Queen Elizabeth Advanced Scholar

Deb Olmstead, RN, MN

Renee Paul, RN, MN

Annie Pentney, BScN

Tabatha Plesuk, RN, BScN, MLIS

Stephanie Powley-Unrau, BSc

Misty Reis, NP

Ahmed Saeed, BScN (Hons)

Rabail Shahid, BScN 

Heather Sharpe, MN, PhD

Hyelin Sung, BScN(Hons)

Alison Thompson, BN, MN, NP, PhD

Eugini Ann Tolentino, BScN 

Brenda VandenBeld, RN, MN

Christina Vogel, RN, MN

Sarah Walton, BScN (Honours)

Tammy Wong, BScN (Honours)

Xuan Wu, BSc, MSc

Amy Zhang, BScN (Honours)

Yihao Zhang, BAS

ECHO

The ECHO research program is focused on improving health outcomes for children with acute health conditions through the application of the best available evidence — a process known as knowledge translation (KT).

ECHO circles

Disclaimer

The information contained in the video/multimedia content (the “Multimedia”) is provided on an “as is” basis and is offered for general information and educational purposes only; it is not offered as and does not constitute professional advice. There is no guarantee about the accuracy, applicability, fitness or completeness of the information found in the Multimedia. This information is provided without warranty of any kind, and the University of Alberta, its agents, employees, and students disclaim responsibility to any party for any loss or damage of any kind that may arise directly or indirectly as a result of the use of or reliance on the information contained in the Multimedia.

These resources may not be modified, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent of ECHO Research. Contact shannon.scott@ualberta.ca.

Physical treatments can include physiotherapy, prescribed exercise plans, strengthening exercises, massage, and more. 

Psychological treatments can include counselling or talk therapy, supportive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, mediation, and more. They can be provided on a one-on-one basis or in a group setting.